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Specialized Medicine

FREE MEDICAL EVALUATION

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FREE MEDICAL EVALUATION

SPECIALIZED MEDICINE

What is Specialized Medicine?

The 80% of newly graduated Doctors cannot be considered as completely trained until they have followed a specialization, it is a mandatory step to be able to work in the national health care system. In fact, without a specialization, Doctors can’t do much apart from general medicine replacements or emergencies calls.

Probably the majority of people don’t realize how vast the Medical field is; certainly they know the specialization of the professionals they addressed to in their life, but usually it stops there. Below you have a list of medical specialties in order for you to differentiate the disciplines and know what they deal with.

In fact, there are different types of disciplines in Specialized Medicine:

surgical, internal, clinical-diagnostic and analytical technical lab specialties.

 

INTERNAL DISCIPLINES

Internal disciplines of specialized medicines:

Allergology and clinical immunology (allergies and immune system)

Angiology (cardiovascular and lymphatic system)

Cardiology (heart and cardiocirculatory system)

Hematology (blood or blood-forming organs disease)

 

Endocrinology (diseases relating to metabolism and endocrine glands)

Gastroenterology (gastrointestinal diseases concerning in particular organs as: the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, intestines, colon, spleen, rectum and liver)

Infectious diseases

Tropical Medicine (environmental infections, typical of the tropics)

Internal Medicine (internal human body diseases)

General Medicine ( illness outside the hospital setting)

Nephrology (kidney disease from an internist point of view, electrolyte disorders, acid-base balance, hypertension)

Neurology (central and peripheric nervous system)

Ophthalmology (eye pathologies and sight defects)

Oncology (tumor diagnosis and therapies)

Pneumology (respiratory tract)

Rheumatology (rheumatic disease, immune-mediated disorders of the musculoskeletal system, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, connective tissue disorder)

Toxicology (treats acute and chronic poisoning, including those deriving  from drugs and alcohol)

 

LAB DISCIPLINES:

Laboratory disciplines of Specialized Medicine:

 

Pathological anatomy (deals with diseases related to different systems and tracts from a macroscopic, microscopic and molecular point of view as well as diagnostic verifications to dead patients through autopsy or necroscopy)

Clinical Biochemistry (biochemical alterations originated by disease)

Hematology (blood and blood-forming organs alterations)

Clinical Pharmacology (studies the relationship between drugs and molecular structures)

Clinical Genetics (diagnosis and management of genetic disorders)

Forensic Medicine (dealing with the application of medical knowledge to establish facts in civil or criminal legal cases, such as an investigation into the cause and time of a suspicious death or disability)

Microbiology and Virology (infections due to microorganism as bacteria, fungus, protozoa, viruses and parasites)

 

Neuropathology (malfunctioning of nervous system tissue, employing  neuro-rehabilitation and other techniques)

Clinical Pathology (supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood and other bodily fluids and tissues)

Food Science (diagnosis of nutritional process dysfunction and elaboration and prescription of diets for healthy and sick patients)

 

NON SURGICAL DISCIPLINES

Non surgical disciplines of Specialized Medicine:

 

Anesthesia and intensive care (deals with anesthesia, the waking of the patient after surgery and intensive care)

Dermatology and Venereology (human skin and venereal disease)

Hematology (diagnosis and therapy of diseases related to blood and blood-forming organs)

Medical Physics (application of Physics to healthcare)

Geriatrics (healthcare of elderly people)

Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (suggests the patient the best ways to avoid certain diseases)

Audiology and speech therapist (voice and communication disorders)

Emergency Medicine (clinical-therapeutic emergency situations)

Occupational Medicine (prevents and manages illness, injury, and disability related to the workplace)

Sport Medicine (deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.)

Community medicine (dealing with healthcare issues affecting communities as a whole)

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities)

Nuclear Medicine (diagnosis and therapy through radiation)

Pediatrics (medical care of infants, children and adolescents)

Diagnostic Radiology (non-invasive imaging scans to diagnose the patient)

Radiotherapy (controlled utilization of radiation for therapeutic purposes, for example in Oncology)

Medical Statistics (applies statistic methods to healthcare processes)

 

SURGICAL DISCIPLINES

Surgical disciplines of Specialized Medicine:

 

Cardiothoracic surgery (heart surgery)

Gastrointestinal surgery (surgery of the stomach, large and small intestine, colon, rectum)

General Surgery (surgery focusing on abdominal contents and other organs)

Maxillo facial Surgery (congenital or traumatic face injuries)

Odonto Stomatology and oral Surgery (mouth surgery)

Pediatric Surgery (surgery on infants and children)

Plastic Surgery (restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body)

Thoracic Surgery (refers to operations on organs in the thoracic area including the trachea, the esophagus, lungs and diaphragm)

Vascular Surgery (surgery of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels)

Gynecology and Obstetrics (deals with female reproductive system disorders, also surgically)

Neurosurgery (clinical surgery of the central and peripheral nervous system)

Eye Surgery (eye pathologies and microsurgery)

Orthodontics and Ortognatodontics (comparable to Orthopedics, but in the facial area)

Radiosurgery (specific targeted radiotherapy in surgical oncological surgery)

Urology (traumas, infections and cancer of the kidney, urinary tract and male genital system)

It is possible to find more information on Specialized Medicine on the site of the Ordine Provinciale dei Medici Chirurghi e degli Odontoiatri di Milano: www.omceomi.it/ricerca